**Abstract** : The statistical inverse problem for the experimental identification of a non-Gauss-ian matrix-valued random field that is the model parameter of a boundary value problem, using some partial and limited experimental data related to a model observation, is a very difficult and challenging problem. A complete advanced methodology and the associated tools are presented for solving such a problem in the following framework: the random field that must be identified is a non-Gaussian matrix-valued random field and is not simply a real-valued random field; this non-Gaussian random field is in high stochastic dimension and is identified in a general class of random fields; some fundamental algebraic properties of this non-Gaussian random field must be satisfied such as symmetry, positiveness, invertibility in mean square, boundedness, symmetry class, spatial-correlation lengths, etc; the available experimental data sets correspond only to partial and limited data for a model observation of the boundary value problem. The developments presented are mainly related to the elasticity framework, but the methodology is general and can be used in many areas of computational sciences and engineering. The developments are organized as follows. The first part is devoted to the definition of the statistical inverse problem that has to be solved in high stochastic dimension. The second one deals with the construction of two possible parameterized representations for a non-Gaussian positive-definite matrix-valued random field that models the model parameter of a boundary value problem. The third part is devoted to the description of all the steps of the methodology allowing the statistical inverse problem to be solved in high stochastic dimension. These steps are based on the identification of a prior stochastic model of the Non-Gaussian random field by using the maximum likelihood method and then, on the identification of a posterior stochastic model of the Non-Gaussian random field by using the Bayes method.The fourth part presents the construction of an algebraic prior stochastic model of the model parameter of the boundary value problem, for a non-Gaussian matrix-valued random field. The generator of realizations for such an algebraic prior stochastic model for a non-Gaussian matrix-valued random field is presented.