Tin and niobium in dry and fluid-rich (H2O, F) silicate glasses

Abstract : The speciation of niobium and tin in 29 silicate glasses was investigated by XAFS at the Nb and Sn K-edges using beamline 4-3 and 11-2 at SSRL (Stanford, USA). The metal content in the glasses varies between 100 ppm and 5wt.% ( to examine the effects of Nb2O5 and SnO2 saturation in the melt composition prior quenching). The glasses show variation in composition from peralkaline to peraluminous, with either zero or similar to 2 wt.% fluorine. In addition, hydrous glasses were quenched from water-saturated melts at 850 degrees C and 2 kbar under relatively reducing conditions. Three "haplogranitic" compositions (a model granite in the system Na2O-K2O-AlO3-SiO2) were investigated: peralkaline (labeled "ASI 0.6"), metaluminous ("ASI 1.0") and peraluminous ("ASI 1.2"). One series of haplogranitic glasses ("SQ") were synthesized at intermediate oxygen fugacity conditions (similar to 10(-9) atm.). In addition, 15 model oxide and silicate compounds of tin and niobium were investigated. The tin-bearing glasses show Sn K-edge XAFS spectra that resemble that displayed by eakerite, a Ca-Sn silicate in which Sn(IV)O-6 octahedra share corners with SiO4 tetrahedra (< Sn-O-Si >: 150 degrees). However, the most reduced glasses show significant contributions arising from weakly bound Sn(II)O-n complexes. The niobium-bearing glasses show Nb K-edge XAFS spectra that most closely resemble that displayed by vuonnemite, a Na-Ti-Nb silicophosphate. Niobium forms NbO6 clusters, also bonded to Si/Al second neighbors. The coordination geometry of niobium in the glasses is strongly influenced by both Nb content and alkalinity; H2O content does not strongly influence the speciation of niobium. Fluorine-bearing Nb-glasses show unusual XANES spectra, which might be related to a decrease in the coordination number of niobium from 6 to 4 (or 5). However, based on Nb K-edge XANES calculations (FEFF 8), fluorine does not appear to complex niobium.
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P. C. Piilonen, F. Farges, R. L. Linnen, G. E. Brown. Tin and niobium in dry and fluid-rich (H2O, F) silicate glasses. Physica Scripta, IOP Publishing, 2005, T115 (?), pp.405--407. ⟨hal-00693870⟩

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