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SPHERE: the exoplanet imager for the Very Large Telescope

Jean-Luc Beuzit 1, 2 Arthur Vigan 2 David Mouillet 1 Kjetil Dohlen 2 Raffaele Gratton 3 Anthony Boccaletti 4 Jean-François Sauvage 2, 5 Hans Martin Schmid 6 Maud Langlois 2, 7 Cyril Petit 5 Andrea Baruffolo 3 Markus Feldt 8 Julien Milli 9 Zahed Wahhaj 9 Lyu Abe 10 U. Anselmi 3 Jacopo Antichi 3 R. Barette 2 Jacques Baudrand 4 Pierre Baudoz 4 Andreas Bazzon 6 Pernelle Bernardi 4 Patrick Blanchard 2 Roland Brast 11 Pietro Bruno 12 Tristan Buey 4 Marcel Carbillet 10 Michaël Carle 2 Enrico Cascone 13 Frédéric Chapron 4 Julien Charton 1 Gael Chauvin 1, 14 Riccardo Claudi 3 Anne Costille 2 Vincenzo de Caprio 13 J. Deboer 15 Alain Delboulbé 1 Silvano Desidera 3 Carsten Dominik 16 Mark Downing 11 Olivier Dupuis 4 Christophe Fabron 2 Daniela Fantinel 3 Giancarlo Farisato 3 Philippe Feautrier 1 Enrico Fedrigo 11 Thierry Fusco 2, 5 P. Gigan 4 C. Ginski 15 J. Girard 1, 17 E. Giro 18 D. Gisler 6 L. Gluck 1 C. Gry 2 T. Henning 8 N. Hubin 11 Emmanuel Hugot 2 S. Incorvaia 19 M. Jaquet 2 M. Kasper 11 Erwan Lagadec 10 Anne-Marie Lagrange 1 Hervé Le Coroller 2 David Le Mignant 2 B. Le Ruyet 4 Alessio Guarino 3 Jean-Louis Lizon 11 Marc Llored 2 L. Lundin 9 F. Madec 2 Y. Magnard 1 Michel Marteaud 4 Patrick Martinez 10 Denis Maurel 1 Frédéric Ménard 1 D. Mesa 3 Ole Möller-Nilsson 8 T. Moulin 1 C. Moutou 2 Alain Origné 2 J. Parisot 4 A. Pavlov 8 D. Perret 4 Johan Pragt 20 P. Puget 1 P. Rabou 1 J. Ramos 8 J.M. Reess 4 Francois Rigal 20 S. Rochat 21 R. Roelfsema G. Rousset 4 A. Roux 1 Michel Saisse 2 B. Salasnich 3 E. Santambrogio 18 S. Scuderi 12 Damien Segransan 22 A. Sevin 4 R. Siebenmorgen 11 Christian Soenke 11 E. Stadler 1 M. Suarez 11 Didier Tiphène 4 M. Turatto 3 S. Udry 22 F. Vakili 10 L.B.F.M. Waters 16, 19 L. Weber 22 François Wildi 22 G. Zins 12 Alice Zurlo 2, 23
Abstract : Observations of circumstellar environments that look for the direct signal of exoplanets and the scattered light from disks have significant instrumental implications. In the past 15 years, major developments in adaptive optics, coronagraphy, optical manufacturing, wavefront sensing, and data processing, together with a consistent global system analysis have brought about a new generation of high-contrast imagers and spectrographs on large ground-based telescopes with much better performance. One of the most productive imagers is the Spectro-Polarimetic High contrast imager for Exoplanets REsearch (SPHERE), which was designed and built for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SPHERE includes an extreme adaptive optics system, a highly stable common path interface, several types of coronagraphs, and three science instruments. Two of them, the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) and the Infra-Red Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS), were designed to efficiently cover the near-infrared range in a single observation for an efficient search of young planets. The third instrument, ZIMPOL, was designed for visible polarimetric observation to look for the reflected light of exoplanets and the light scattered by debris disks. These three scientific instruments enable the study of circumstellar environments at unprecedented angular resolution, both in the visible and the near-infrared. In this work, we thoroughly present SPHERE and its on-sky performance after four years of operations at the VLT.
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Jean-Luc Beuzit, Arthur Vigan, David Mouillet, Kjetil Dohlen, Raffaele Gratton, et al.. SPHERE: the exoplanet imager for the Very Large Telescope. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2019, 631 (155), pp.1-36. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201935251⟩. ⟨hal-02388928⟩

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